A few days ago I published the article FILTER vs CALCULATETABLE: optimization using cardinality estimation, where I try to explain why the sentence “CALCULATETABLE is better than FILTER” is not always true. In reality, CALCULATETABLE internally might use FILTER for every logical expression you use as a filter argument. What really matters is the cardinality of the table iterated by the FILTER, regardless of the fact it’s an explicit statement or an implicit one generated automatically by CALCULATETABLE.

In addition to the article, there is a digression related to the use of time intelligence functions, which returns a table and not a scalar values. These functions (such as DATESBETWEEN and LASTDATE) might seem better than FILTER, but this is not necessarily true.

For example, consider this statement:

SUM ( Movements[Quantity] ),

ALL ( ‘Date’[Date] ),

‘Date’[Date] <= MAX( ‘Date’[Date] )

)

)

Can avoid the FILTER statement using DATESBETWEEN? Yes, we can replace the filter with the following expression:

SUM ( Movements[Quantity] ),

‘Date’[Date],

BLANK(),

MAX ( ‘Date’[Date] )

)

)

Is this faster? No. DATESBETWEEN is executed by the formula engine, it’s not better than FILTER. But there is more. You might wonder why I’m using MAX instead of LASTDATE. Well, in the FILTER example there was a semantic reason, I would have obtained a different result. LASTDATE returns a table, not a scalar value, even if it is a table containing only one row, which can be converted into a scalar value. More important, LASTDATE performs a context transition, which would transform the row context produced by the FILTER iteration into a filter context, hiding the existing filter context that I wanted to consider in my original expression. Now, in DATESBETWEEN I don’t have this issue, so I can write it using LASTDATE obtaining the same result:

SUM ( Movements[Quantity] ),

‘Date’[Date],

BLANK(),

LASTDATE ( ‘Date’[Date] )

)

)

But this is not for free. The LASTDATE function produces a more expensive execution plan in this case. Consider LASTDATE only as filter argument of CALCULATE/CALCULATETABLE, such as:

SUM ( Movements[Quantity] ),

LASTDATE ( ‘Date’[Date] )

)

At the end of the day, a filter argument in a CALCULATE function has to be a table (of values in one column or of rows in a table), so using a table expression in a filter argument is fine, because in this case a table is expected and there are no context transitions. But think twice before using LASTDATE where a scalar value is expected, using MAX is a smarter choice.

CALCULATETABLE Context transition

Evaluates a table expression in a context modified by filters.

`CALCULATETABLE ( <Table> [, <Filter> [, <Filter> [, … ] ] ] )`

FILTER Returns a table that has been filtered.

`FILTER ( <Table>, <FilterExpression> )`

DATESBETWEEN Returns the dates between two given dates.

`DATESBETWEEN ( <Dates>, <StartDate>, <EndDate> )`

LASTDATE Context transition

Returns last non blank date.

`LASTDATE ( <Dates> )`

CALCULATE Context transition

Evaluates an expression in a context modified by filters.

`CALCULATE ( <Expression> [, <Filter> [, <Filter> [, … ] ] ] )`

SUM Adds all the numbers in a column.

`SUM ( <ColumnName> )`

ALL CALCULATE modifier

Returns all the rows in a table, or all the values in a column, ignoring any filters that might have been applied.

`ALL ( [<TableNameOrColumnName>] [, <ColumnName> [, <ColumnName> [, … ] ] ] )`

MAX Returns the largest value in a column, or the larger value between two scalar expressions. Ignores logical values. Strings are compared according to alphabetical order.

`MAX ( <ColumnNameOrScalar1> [, <Scalar2>] )`

BLANK Returns a blank.

`BLANK ( )`